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Inversion in Conditionals - Exercises

Inversion in Conditionals

1. Invert the following Conditionals.

2. Complete with the appropriate conditionals (0/ I / II or III).

3. Choose the correct answer

Zero Conditionals

  • The zero conditional describes situations that are always true.

  • ‘ If ‘ can be replaced by when or whenever without changing the meaning of a given sentence.

  • Form
    The zero conditional is made up of two present simple verbs:
    • the ‘if’ clause in the present simple
    • the main clause in the present simple.

  • If you park your car on double yellow lines, you pay a fine.
    (Whenever you park illegally, you pay a fine.)

  • If water reaches 100 degrees, it boils.
    (It is always true, there can’t be a different result sometimes).

  • You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen.
    (It’s always true!)

  • If they go to school, they get up at seven.
    (Whenever they go to school they get up at the same time.)

  • My friends always help me if I ask them.
    (My friends help me whenever I ask them.)

Other Forms
Apart from the basic forms (the present simple in the main clause and the if clause),
we can use other verb forms in the zero conditional sentences:

  • If you want to be healthy, you must exercise.
    (a modal verb in the main clause)

  • If you are tired all day long, sleep more!
    (an imperative in the main clause)

‘ If ‘ is the most frequent expression in the if clauses, but other expressions are also possible. even if, provided (that), unless, on condition (that)

  • Iron melts on condition that it is heated..

  • He never says hello unless you say hello to him first.

  • Meat goes off provided that we don’t keep it in a fridge.

  • the teacher always shouts even if there’s no need.

Mixed Conditionals

When the two parts of a conditional sentence refer to different times, the resulting sentence is called a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence:

  • Present result of a past condition
  • Past result of present or continuing condition

Present result of a past condition

The Form
This type of mixed conditional sentence has:

  • the ‘if’ clause in the past perfect
  • the main clause in the present conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + past perfect (3rd conditional) present conditional (2nd conditional)
If she had never met him she’d be so much happier.
Conditional sentences usually don’t have their clauses in a fixed order. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.


  • If I had worked harder at school, I would have been a doctor now.

  • We wouldn’t be lost if we had gone straight ahead.

  • If you had caught that bus you would be dead now.

  • I would have be a doctor now if I had worked harder at school.

  • If we had gone straight ahead we wouldn’t be lost.

  • You would be dead now if you had caught that bus.

The Function
The second and the third conditionals are combined to talk about an unreal past condition and its probable (imaginary) result or effect on the present / future.


  • If I had won the lottery, I would be rich.
    (but I didn’t win the lottery in the past and I’m not rich now)

  • If she had taken Chinese in high school, she would have more job opportunities in China.
    (But she didn’t take Chinese in high school and she doesn’t have many job opportunities in China.

  • If you had spent all your money, you wouldn’t buy this jacket.
    (but you didn’t spend all your money and now you can buy this jacket)

P.S.: You can also use modal verbs (modals) in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.


  • If you had broken the glass, you might be in trouble.

  • I could be a millionaire now if I had invested wisely.

  • If they had liked the party, they might be on the dancefloor right now.

Past result of present or continuing condition

The Form
This type of mixed conditional sentence is about combining:

  • the ‘if’ clause in the simple past
  • the main clause in the perfect conditional.

If clause (condition) Main clause (result)
If + simple past (2nd conditional) perfect conditional (3rd conditional)
If she never met him she’d have been so much happier.
Conditional sentences usually don’t have their clauses in a fixed order. You may have to rearrange the pronouns and adjust punctuation when you change the order of the clauses, but the meaning is identical.


  • If the kid took better care of his teeth, He wouldn’t have gotten all these cavities.

  • We would have been lost if we didn’t go straight ahead.

  • We would have sacked him months ago if we didn’t trust him.

  • If we didn’t trust him we would have sacked him months ago.

  • If you caught that bus you would have been dead now.

  • I would have been a doctor now if I worked harder at school.

The Function
The third and the second conditionals (in this order) refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now.

For example:
“If I wasn’t afraid of snakes” is contrary to present reality. (In fact I’m afraid of snakes).
“I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. (I didn’t pick it up).


  • If it was my birthday, I’d have invited them to lunch.

  • She’d have accepted the invitation if she wasn’t married!

  • I’d have been able to translate the speech if my Chinese was better.

  • If the movie wasn’t so good, we’d have left the theater by now.

| Quiz Adverbialpronomen 'EN' und 'Y'|


Wähle aus: "EN“ oder "Y“

 10 Fragen ...

Auf die Plätze, fertig, los!

Adverbialpronomen “EN“ und “Y“

Wähle die richtigen Pronomen aus

(Nur eine Lösung ist RICHTIG!)

|Die Adverbialpronomen "EN“ und "Y“| |Les pronoms compléments "EN" et "Y"|

Das Pronomen “EN”

Das Pronomen EN auf Französisch kann man mit “davon, darauf, von dort” oder “davor” übersetzen. Es kann jedoch auch vorkommen, dass EN in einem Satz gar nicht ins Deutsche übersetzt wird.
EN ersetzt Ergänzungen, die mit der Präposition de (von/aus) angehängt werden.

Das pronomen EN wird verwendet als ersatz für:

  • Ortsangaben, die mit de eingeleitet werden. (ein Herkunftsort)


      PA: Est-ce qu’elle revient d’Angleterre?
             (Kommt sie aus England zurück?)
      PB: Oui, elle en revient.
             (Ja, sie kommt von dort zurück.)
             Non, elle n’en revient pas.
             (Nein, sie kommt nicht von dort zurück.)

    In der Frage von PA wird die Ortsangabe d’Angleterre (aus England) mit de (von/aus) eingeleitet. Da das Land Angleterre (England) mit einem Vokal beginnt, kürzt man de zu d’ (d Apostrophe) ab. Diese Ortsangabe wird im Satz von PB durch das Adverbialpronomen en (von dort) ersetzt.

  • Mengenangaben mit de: (Die Mengenangabe steht immer hinter dem Verb)!


      PA: Tu prends une part de gâteau?
             (Nimmst du ein Stück Kuchen?)
      PB: Oui, j’en prends (une part).
             (Ja, Ich nehme davon.)
             Non, je n’en prends pas.
             (Nein, Ich nehme nicht davon.)

      PA: Il faut combien de pommes?
             (Wie viele Äpfel brauchen wir/braucht man?)
      PB: Il en faut trois.
             (Wir brauchen drei davon.)

      PA: Elle a beaucoup de chiens?
             (Hat sie viele Hunde?)
      PB: Oui, elle en a cinq.
             (Ja, sie hat fünf davon.)
             Non, elle n’en a pas beaucoup.
             (Nein, sie hat nicht viele davon.)

    Mit en ersetzt man hier de gâteau (Kuchen) de pommes (Äpfel) und de chiens (Hunde) – gehen. En steht dabei vor den Verben prendre (nehmen), falloir (brauchen/nötig sein) und avoir (haben). Die unterstrichenen Mengenangaben une part (ein Stück), trois (drei) und cinq (fünf) stehen hinter den Verben.

    In diesen Fällen übersetzt man en nicht ins Deutsche, im Französischen ist das Adverbialpronomen aber wichtig für den Zusammenhang.

  • Ergänzungen von Verben im Infinitiv mit de

      avoir envie de fair qc. (Lust haben, etwas zu tun)

      PA: Avez-vous envie de regarder un film ce soir?
             (Haben Sie heute Abend Lust, einen Film anzusehen?)
      PB: Oui, nous en avons envie.
             (Ja, das wollen wir.)
             Non, nous n’en avons pas envie.
             (Nein, das wollen wir nicht.)

    Avoir envie de … (Lust haben …) verbindest man durch die Präposition de mit dem Infinitiv ‘regarder’ (sehen). Den Satzteil ‘regarder’ un film (einen Film ansehen) ersetzt man dann durch en (darauf).

Das Pronomen “Y”

Das Pronomen y auf Französisch kann man mit “dorthin, darauf, daran, dort” oder “dahin” ins Deutsche übersetzen.

Wie wir bereits gelernt haben, ersetzt man mit en Ergänzungen mit der Präposition de.
  – Im Gegensatz dazu ersetzt man mit y Ergänzungen mit allen anderen Präpositionen, wie:         *en (in)
        *à (in/an)
        *dans (in)
        *sur (auf)
        *chez (bei)
        *sous (unter)

Man kann das Adverbialpronomen y verwenden, um:

  • Ortsangaben zu ersetzen, die mit anderen Präpositionen als de eingeleitet werden


      PA: Est-elle allée au (au = à le) supermarché?
             (Ist sie in den Supermarkt gegangen?)
      PB: Oui, elle y est allée!
             (Ja, sie ist dorthin gegangen.)
             Non, elle n’y est pas allée!
             (Nein, sie ist nicht dorthin gegangen.)

      PA: Est-ce qu’elle habite en France?
             (Wohnt sie in Frankreich?)
      PB: Oui, elle y habite!
             (Ja, sie wohnt dort!)
             Non, elle n’y habite pas!
             (Nein, sie wohnt nicht dort!)

    Die Ortsangaben au supermarché (in den Supermarket) und en France (in Frankreich) werden mit den Präpositionen à (an/in) und en (in) eingeleitet. Man ersetzt diese Ortsangaben durch das Adverbialpronomen y (dorthin/dort).

  • Ergänzungen von Verben im Infinitiv mit à zu ersetzen

      Penser à qc. (an etwas denken)

      PA: Les enfants ont pensé à acheter leurs tickets?
             (Haben die Kinder darüber nachgedacht, ihre Tickets zu kaufen?)
      PB: Oui, ils y ont pensé!
             (Ja, sie haben darüber nachgedacht!)
             Non, ils n’y ont pas pensé!
             (Nein, daran haben sie nicht gedacht!)

    Die Ergänzung acheter leurs tickets (ihre Tickets kaufen) ist durch die Präposition à (an/in) mit dem Verb penser (denken) verbunden. Diese Ergänzung kann man durch y (daran) ersetzen.

  • indirekte Objekte, die mit à verbunden werden, zu ersetzen.

      répondre à qc. (auf etwas antworten)

      PA: Tu as répondu à cette lettre?
             (Hast du auf diesen Brief geantwortet?)
      PB: Oui, j’y ai répondu!
             (Ja, ich habe darauf geantwortet!)
             Non, je n’y ai pas répondu!
             (Nein, ich habe darauf nicht geantwortet!)

    Das indirekte Objekt cette lettre (dieser Brief) ist durch die Präposition à mit dem Verb répondre (antworten) verbunden. à cette lettre wird durch y (darauf) ersetzt.

        – Objekte kann man durch y ersetze;
        – Personen nicht.

  • Das Wichtigste über Adverbialpronomen “EN” und “Y”

      Ortsangaben mit de
      Verwendung: Ortsangaben

      Mengenangaben mit de
      Verwendung: Mengenangaben

      Verben im Infinitiv mit de
      Verwendung: Ergänzungen von Verben im Infinitiv

      Ortsangaben mit allen anderen Präpositionen
      (à, sous, sur, dans, en, und chez)
      Verwendung: Ortsangaben

      Verben im Infinitiv mit à
      Verwendung: Ergänzungen von Verben im Infinitiv

      Indirekte Objekte mit à
      Verwendung: Indirekte Objekte

    P.S.: Mit EN kann man nur de ersetzen und mit Y alle anderen Präpositionen!!!

Active / Passive

  1. Active or Passive? make a choice!

  2. Active or Passive

    Are the sentences written in active or passive?

    There are 10 questions ...

    On your mark, get set, go!

  3. Rewrite the passive sentences into active

  4. Rewrite the active sentences into passive

Passive Voice (Active / Passive)

  1. The passive voice is formed with:
    • the auxiliary verb to be
    • and
    • the past participle to the main verb.

  2. Passive constructions can be used in most of the tenses.
    • the tense is marked/shown by the form of of the auxiliary to be
    • the main verb stays the same in all the tenses.
  3. P.S.: A few tenses (in Sage green in the table) aren’t normally used with the passive.

     Tense  Active voice  Passive voice
     Present simple  make  is/are made
     Present continuous/prog.  is/are making  is/are being made
     Present perfect  has/have made  has/have been made
     Present perfect continuous/prog.  has been making  has been being made
     Past simple  made  was made
     Past continuous/prog.  was making  was being made
     Past perfect  had made  had been made
     Past perfect continuous/prog.  had been making  has been being made
     Going-to-Future  is/are going to make  is/are going to be made
     Will-Future  will make  will be made
     Future continuous/prog.  will be making  will be being made
     Future perfect  will have made  will have been made
     Various modal verbs, e.g. can,
     might, have to, must
     The same goes for their compounds:
     (may, could, should, etc. …)
     can make
     might make
     has/have to make
     must make
     can be made
     might be made
     has/have to be made
     must be
  4. The passive is frequently used when the person carrying out the action is unknown, unimportant or already clear from the text.
    • Shoes were thrown at president Georges W. Bush.
    • Chinese is learned in some schools in Germany.
    • Shakespeare’s language is still used today.

  5. The person who does the action can be made clear with the preposition by.
    • The beautiful house was built by a talented engineer.
    • After the disaster, the city’s reconstruction plan was published by the seating mayor.
    In these two examples, using the passive instead of the active puts the focus more on objects (the beautiful house, the city’s reconstruction plan) than on the people who did it.

  6. You can use the preposition will to describe what is used to do the action.
    • The beautiful house must have been painted with watercolors.
    • This artwork must have been made with clay.

Practical exercise: Passive Voice (Active / Passive)

1. Active or passive:

2. Change the sentences from active to passive:

Be used to / Get used to

  1. Be used to
    Be used to refers to how familiar something is for someone. It can occur in different tense forms. If you are (not) used to doing something, it is (not) familiar to you.
    P.S.: The –ing form of the verb is used in this pattern (not the to-infinitive).
    • She’s used to getting up early every day. (familiar/accustomed to)
      (be used to + verb-ing)
    • I wasn’t used to driving such a big car. (not familiar/accustomed to)
      (be used to + verb-ing)
    • She’s used to long distance relationships. (familiar/accustomed to)
      (be used to + noun phrase/object)

  2. Get used to
    The form of get used to helps you talk about something that has become familiar to you. Something you’re adapted to.
    • After a few months, I got used to driving my new car. (adapted to)
      (get used to + verb-ing)
    • I’m finding this new job hard but I’m sure I’ll get used to it soon. (adapted to)
      (get used to + object)
    • She got used to her new work environment. (adapted to)
      (get used to + noun phrase)
P.S.: Be used to and get used to can both be followed by a noun phrase.
  • Dan’s used to hard time.
  • He got used to the new programming language.
Practical Exercise: Be used to / Get used to

Used to + verb / Would + verb

  1. Use to + verb:
    Used to refers to habits or states that happened or were true at a certain moment in the past but are no longer the case today.
    • My mom used to live in Bafang, but now she lives in Douala.
      (= My mom no longer lives in Bafang)

    • I used to go swimming in the afternoon after work.
      (= I no longer go swimming in the afternoon after work)

    P.S.: When asking questions or making negative statements, the d is dropped from used to.
    • Did you use to get vegetables delivered to your door?
    • Mom didn’t use to wear make-up.

  2. Would + verb:
    Would can also refer to habitual or regular actions in the past, similarly to used to.
    e.g.: Mom used to bake cakes. My daughter would go to her house and watch.

    However, with would, the past time frame must be clear. The past time frame is often established with used to or a time expression such as when I was younger, a little girl/boy … .
    e.g.: When I was a child, we’d (read: we would) often go to my grandparents’ house.

    P.S.: Would isn’t normally used for questions about the past
N.B.: Used to can be used with stative verbs, such as have (meaning ‘own’), know, want or like, but would can’t.

Pratical Exercise: Used to + verb / Would + verb

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