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First Conditionals – Type I: (Real Present: Possible and Probable)
Replace ‘IF’ with ‘SHOULD’
Form: Should + Subject + 1st form of the Verb (v1)
Should it rain, we’ll stay indoors.
If you have finished the book, give it to me.
Should you finish the book, give it to me..
Second Conditionals – Type II: (Unreal Present: Possible but Improbable)
Replace ‘IF’ with ‘WERE’
- Were + Subject + Noun / Adjective / Adverb / Past Participle (v3) / Verb-ing
- Were + Subject + to – Infinitive / not to-Infinitive (v1)
- IF she were my girlfriend, … . ➤ WERE she my girlfriend, … .
- IF I left home, … . ➤ WERE I to leave home, … .
Were I you, I’d tell her the truth.
If she won the lottery, she’d travel the world.
Were she to win the lottery, she’d travel the world.
Third Conditionals – Type III: (Unreal Past: Impossible)
Replace ‘IF’ with ‘HAD’
Form: Had + Subject + Past Participle (v3)
had she had arrived earlier, she could’ve helped us.
If I had seen you before, I could’ve given it to you.
Had I seen you before, I could’ve given it to you.
If they hadn’t robbed the bank, they wouldn’t have gone to jail.
Had they not robbed the bank, they wouldn’t have gone to jail.
The first conditional describes something that is fairly likely to happen (in fact a real condition) and what will, can or might happen as a consequence of the happening:
– If she misses the appointment tomorrow, she won’t get to see the doctor!
It is made up of a conditional clause (if + present simple) and a main clause with the result of hat condition (will / won’t + base form):
– If she forgets anything, I‘ll bring it to her tomorrow.
P.S.: The main clause with the result can also use can or might instead of will:
– If she leaves work early, she can meet her friend for a drink before dinner.
- The second conditional describes imaginary situations (unreal conditions) and results of these conditions that could be possible.
The conditional clause is made with if + the past simple, and the main clause is made with would / wouldn’t + base form of the verb:
– If I won the lottery, I‘d buy a new car.
When using the conditional clause in the 1st or 3rd person singular (I/he/she/it),
– were(n’t) is allowed in formal English (If I were a boy, …, If she were more gracious, …) and
– was(n’t) in less formal English (If I was a boy, …, If she was more gracious, …)
The second conditional can be used to give advice:
– If I were you, I’d quit the job.
Could and might can also be used in the main clause instead of would:
– I could write that book! if I quit the job.
– I might go home and eat something delicious.
- The third conditional describes a condition in the past that was not fulfilled and an imaginary result. It’s an unreal and no longer possible condition, and the sentences imagine the past being different from what it really was.
It’s made up of a conditional clause with if + the past perfect and a main clause with would / wouldn’t have + the past participle of the main verb:
– If I had taken the train, Iwould have arrived on time. Could and might can also be used in the main clause instead of would.
- The 3rd can be used to express regret or hapiness about things of the past:
– If I had fixed the sink sooner, there wouldn’t have been so much damage. (regret)
– If she hadn’t read the book, she wouldn’t have been the contented person she is today. (happiness)
Summary | Conditionals (if clauses)
|type 1||If the trains are late,||she won’t be at the party on time.|
|type 2||If I were you,||I’d quit that job!|
|type 3||If I had known that earlier,||I could have made a better decision.|
|mixed||If you’d gone to bed earlier,||you’d be having a better day!|
Complete the sentences with the correct verb form.
Conditional (First, Second or Third Conditionals)
Choose the appropriate conditional sentences.
Translate into English
- Mediation – All Tenses – MT1 Intermediate
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The future perfect is used to describe an action that’ll be finished or something that’ll already have happened before a certain time in the future.
– Positive sentences: subject + will + have + past participle (main verb) Example: By the time the doctor arrives, I will have taken my medications.
– Negative sentences: subject + will (+not, also shorten as won’t) + have + the past participle of the main verb (in our case = taken)
Example: By the time the doctor arrives, I will not (won’t) have taken my medications.
– Yes/no -questions: will + the subject + have + past participle?
Example: By the time the doctor arrives, will she have taken my medication? (yes/no)
– Wh- tag questions: wh-tag + will + the subject + have + past participle? Example: Why will she have taken her medications by the time the doctor arrives?