Home » Present Simple
Category Archives: Present Simple
First Conditionals – Type I: (Real Present: Possible and Probable)
Replace ‘IF’ with ‘SHOULD’
Form: Should + Subject + 1st form of the Verb (v1)
Should it rain, we’ll stay indoors.
If you have finished the book, give it to me.
Should you finish the book, give it to me..
Second Conditionals – Type II: (Unreal Present: Possible but Improbable)
Replace ‘IF’ with ‘WERE’
- Were + Subject + Noun / Adjective / Adverb / Past Participle (v3) / Verb-ing
- Were + Subject + to – Infinitive / not to-Infinitive (v1)
- IF she were my girlfriend, … . ➤ WERE she my girlfriend, … .
- IF I left home, … . ➤ WERE I to leave home, … .
Were I you, I’d tell her the truth.
If she won the lottery, she’d travel the world.
Were she to win the lottery, she’d travel the world.
Third Conditionals – Type III: (Unreal Past: Impossible)
Replace ‘IF’ with ‘HAD’
Form: Had + Subject + Past Participle (v3)
had she had arrived earlier, she could’ve helped us.
If I had seen you before, I could’ve given it to you.
Had I seen you before, I could’ve given it to you.
If they hadn’t robbed the bank, they wouldn’t have gone to jail.
Had they not robbed the bank, they wouldn’t have gone to jail.
- The zero conditional describes situations that are always true.
- ‘ If ‘ can be replaced by when or whenever without changing the meaning of a given sentence.
- the ‘if’ clause in the present simple
- the main clause in the present simple.
The zero conditional is made up of two present simple verbs:
Apart from the basic forms (the present simple in the main clause and the if clause),
we can use other verb forms in the zero conditional sentences:
(a modal verb in the main clause)
(an imperative in the main clause)
‘ If ‘ is the most frequent expression in the if clauses, but other expressions are also possible. even if, provided (that), unless, on condition (that)
When the two parts of a conditional sentence refer to different times, the resulting sentence is called a “mixed conditional” sentence. There are two types of mixed conditional sentence:
- Present result of a past condition
- Past result of present or continuing condition
Present result of a past condition
This type of mixed conditional sentence has:
|If clause (condition)||Main clause (result)|
|If + past perfect (3rd conditional)||present conditional (2nd conditional)|
|If she had never met him||she’d be so much happier.|
The second and the third conditionals are combined to talk about an unreal past condition and its probable (imaginary) result or effect on the present / future.
P.S.: You can also use modal verbs (modals) in the main clause instead of would to express the degree of certainty, permission, or a recommendation about the outcome.
Past result of present or continuing condition
This type of mixed conditional sentence is about combining:
|If clause (condition)||Main clause (result)|
|If + simple past (2nd conditional)||perfect conditional (3rd conditional)|
|If she never met him||she’d have been so much happier.|
The third and the second conditionals (in this order) refer to an unreal present situation and its probable (but unreal) past result. In these mixed conditional sentences, the time in the if clause is now or always and the time in the main clause is before now.
“If I wasn’t afraid of snakes” is contrary to present reality. (In fact I’m afraid of snakes).
“I would have picked it up” is contrary to past reality. (I didn’t pick it up).
The first conditional describes something that is fairly likely to happen (in fact a real condition) and what will, can or might happen as a consequence of the happening:
– If she misses the appointment tomorrow, she won’t get to see the doctor!
It is made up of a conditional clause (if + present simple) and a main clause with the result of hat condition (will / won’t + base form):
– If she forgets anything, I‘ll bring it to her tomorrow.
P.S.: The main clause with the result can also use can or might instead of will:
– If she leaves work early, she can meet her friend for a drink before dinner.
- The second conditional describes imaginary situations (unreal conditions) and results of these conditions that could be possible.
The conditional clause is made with if + the past simple, and the main clause is made with would / wouldn’t + base form of the verb:
– If I won the lottery, I‘d buy a new car.
When using the conditional clause in the 1st or 3rd person singular (I/he/she/it),
– were(n’t) is allowed in formal English (If I were a boy, …, If she were more gracious, …) and
– was(n’t) in less formal English (If I was a boy, …, If she was more gracious, …)
The second conditional can be used to give advice:
– If I were you, I’d quit the job.
Could and might can also be used in the main clause instead of would:
– I could write that book! if I quit the job.
– I might go home and eat something delicious.
- The third conditional describes a condition in the past that was not fulfilled and an imaginary result. It’s an unreal and no longer possible condition, and the sentences imagine the past being different from what it really was.
It’s made up of a conditional clause with if + the past perfect and a main clause with would / wouldn’t have + the past participle of the main verb:
– If I had taken the train, Iwould have arrived on time. Could and might can also be used in the main clause instead of would.
- The 3rd can be used to express regret or hapiness about things of the past:
– If I had fixed the sink sooner, there wouldn’t have been so much damage. (regret)
– If she hadn’t read the book, she wouldn’t have been the contented person she is today. (happiness)
Summary | Conditionals (if clauses)
|type 1||If the trains are late,||she won’t be at the party on time.|
|type 2||If I were you,||I’d quit that job!|
|type 3||If I had known that earlier,||I could have made a better decision.|
|mixed||If you’d gone to bed earlier,||you’d be having a better day!|
Complete the sentences with the correct verb form.
Conditional (First, Second or Third Conditionals)
Choose the appropriate conditional sentences.
Fill in the blanks. (10 Exercises)
Translate into English
- Mediation – All Tenses – MT1 Intermediate
MT1 Possible Answers
- Mediation – All Tenses – MT2 Intermediate
MT2 Possible Answers
- Mediation – All Tenses – MT3 Intermediate
MT3 Possible Answers
- Mediation – All Tenses – MT4 Intermediate
MT4 Possible Answers
- Mediation – All Tenses – MT5 Intermediate
MT5 Possible Answers
- Mediation – All Tenses – MT6 Intermediate
MT6 Possible Answers
- Irregular Verbs – Exercise 1.pdf
- Irregular Verbs – Exercise 2.pdf
- Irregular Verbs – Exercise 3.pdf
- Irregular Verbs – Exercise 4.pdf
- Irregular Verbs – Exercise 5.pdf
This video talks about the different expressions of the future in English, supported by well detailed examples.